Background: While pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, the highly aggressive PDAC subtype of undifferentiated sarcomatoid carcinoma (USC) remains poorly characterized as it comprises only 2-3% of all PDAC histology. Previous case reports suggest that immune checkpoint inhibitors could be a promising treatment strategy for USC, but the prevalence of established predictive biomarkers of response are largely unknown in this unique subpopulation. We identified PDAC USC patient samples from a large dataset and performed comprehensive genomic profiling to determine the prevalence of biomarkers associated with response to immunotherapy.
Methods: PDAC USC patient samples (N=43) underwent central pathology review to confirm this diagnosis and were compared to non-USC PDAC patient samples (N=5562). Next-generation sequencing of DNA and RNA was performed at Caris Life Sciences (Phoenix, AZ). PD-L1 expression was tested by IHC (SP142; Positive (+): ≥ 2+, ≥%5). A combination of IHC, NGS, and fragment analysis was used to assess deficient mismatch repair/microsatellite instability high (dMMR/MSI). High tumor mutational burden (TMB-High) was defined as ≥10 mutations/MB. Immune cell fractions of the tumor microenvironment were estimated by RNA deconvolution analysis using quanTIseq. Chi-square tests with Bonferoni correction for multiple comparisons were used to determine significance.
Results: Among PDAC USC samples, KRAS (86% USC vs 90% non-USC, p = 0.31, q = 1), TP53 (86% vs 77%, p = 0.16, q = 1), and CDKN2A (18% vs 23%, p = 0.45, q = 1) were the most commonly mutated genes with a similar prevalence compared to non-USC histologies; however, KRAS was amplified more frequently (7% USC vs <1% non-USC, q = 0.006). Furthermore, more USC tumors were PD-L1+ (63% vs 16%, q < 0.001), while few USC samples were dMMR/MSI (2% USC vs 1% non-USC, p = 0.45, q = 1) or TMB-High (2% vs 2%, p = 0.89, q = 1). All USC tumors were deplete of lymphocytes, but many were differentially enriched (>5%) with neutrophils (85% vs 57%, q = 0.03) or M2 macrophages (52% vs 28%, p = 0.006, q = 0.06).
Conclusions: This work represents the largest molecular analysis of PDAC USC samples to date. Our analysis uncovered a different prevalence of amplified KRAS and PD-L1 expression in USC as compared to other PDAC histologies amidst an immune desert lacking lymphocytes in the USC tumor microenvironment. These findings provide evidence for further investigation into combination therapy of KRAS inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors to target these immune-imbalanced microenvironment landscapes.External Link