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Learn More About cMVs

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What are circulating microvesicles (cMVs)?
    • Circulating microvesicles (cMVs) are sub-cellular membrane-bound vesicles (30 to 1500 nm in diameter) that are released into the extracellular environment, including the blood stream, from most cell types, including tumor cells. cMVs can include broad arrays of sub-groups of vesicles, including exosomes, apoptotic (dying) cells, and microparticles that carry information between cells in the extracellular environment, including the blood stream.
  • What are exosomes?
    • Exosomes are tiny vesicles (30-100 nm in diameter) that are released into the extracellular environment via the endosomal pathway from a variety of different cells such as, but not limited to, tumor cells, dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, mesothelial cells, epithelial cells, or cells from different tissues or organs.
  • How are cMVs and exosomes related?
    • cMVs can include broad arrays of sub-groups of membrane-bound vesicles, including exosomes, apoptotic (dying) cells, and microparticles that carry information between cells via the blood stream. Since Carisome® Technology identifies and characterizes cMVs, by definition, exosomes are also captured in the process.
  • Where can they be found?
    • cMVs have been detected in various bodily fluids including blood, urine, serum, cerebro spinal fluid (CSF), saliva and breast milk.1
  • What genetic information do they carry?
    • cMVs have been found to carry cargo containing information representative of their cell of origin, such as proteins, messenger RNA and micro RNA.4, 5
  • Can circulating microvesicles (cMVs) be utilized for micro RNA profiling?
    • Yes. Micro RNA can be isolated from cMVs and their expression profiles appear to be similar to the originating tumor cell.4, 5
  • Can circulating microvesicles (cMVs) be utilized for messenger RNA profiling?
    • Yes. Messenger RNA can be isolated from cMVs and their expression profiles analyzed.

Learn More

Select Journal Reviews on Exosomes

  1. Exosomes: composition, biogenesis and function. Thery C, Zitvogel L, Amigorena, S. Nature Rev. Immunol. 2002 Aug;2(8): 569-79
  2. Membrane vesicles as conveyors of immune responses. Thery, C. Nature Rev. Immunol.2009 Aug;9(8):581-93. Epub 2009 June 5.
  3. Exosomes in tumour immunity. Clayton A., Mason, MD. Curr Oncol. 2009 May; 16(3):46-9
  4. Exosomes: proteomic insights and diagnostic potential. Simpson RJ, Lim JW, Moritz RL, Mathivanan S. Expert Rev. Proteomics. 2009 June(3):267-83
  5. Cell-derived microvesicles and cancer. Van Doormaal FF, Kleinjan A, Di Nisio M, Buller HR, Nieuwland R. Neth J Med. 2009 July-Aug;67(7):266-73
  6. Shedding microvesicles: artifacts no more. Cocucci E., Racchetti G, Meldolesi J. Trends Cell Biol. 2009 Feb; 19(2):43-51 Epub Jan. 12.

Exosome Discovery

  1. Fate of the transferrin receptor during maturation of sheep reticulocytes in vitro: selective externalization of the receptor. Pan BT, Johnstone RM. Cell. 1983 July;33(3):967-78.
  2. Electron microscopic evidence for externalization of the transferrin receptor in vesicular form in sheep reticulocytes. Pan BT, Teng K, Wu C, Adam M, Johnstone RM. J Cell Biol. 1985 Sep;101(3):942-8.
  3. Vesicle formation during reticulocyte maturation. Association of plasma membrane activities with released vesicles (exosomes). Johnstone RM, Adam M, Hammond JR, Orr L, Turbide C. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jul 5;262(19):9412-20.

Exosomes and miRNA

  1. Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells. Valadi H, Ekstrom K, Bossios A, Sjostrand M, Lee JJ, Lotvall JO. Nat Cell Biol. 2007 June;9(6):654-9. Epub 2007 May 7.
  2. Detection of microRNA expression in human peripheral blood microvesicles. Hunter MP, Ismail N, Zhang Z, Aguda BD, Lee EJ, Yu L, Xiao T, Schafer J, Lee ML, Schmittgen TD, Nana-Sinkham SP, Jarjoura D, Marsh CB. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(11):e3694. Epub 2008 Nov 11.
  3. Multivesicular bodies associate with components of miRNA effector complexes and modulate miRNA activity. Gibbings DJ, Ciaudo C, Erhardt M, Voinnet O. Nat Cell Biol 2009 Sept;11(9):1143-9.Epub 2009 Aug 16. Erratum in: Nat Cell Biol Oct;11(10)1272.
  4. Silencing by small RNAs is linked to endosomal trafficking. Lee YS, Pressman S, Andress AP, Kim K, White JL, Cassidy JJ, Li X, Lubell K, Lim do H, Cho IS, Nakahara K, Preall JB, Bellare P, Sontheimer EJ, Carthew RW. Nature Cell Biol. 2009 Sep;11(9):1150-6. Epub 2009 Aug 16.

Cancer Specific Research

Ovarian Cancer

  1. Malignant ascites-derived exosomes of ovarian carcinoma patients contain CD24 and EpCAM. Runz S, Keller S, Rupp C, Stoeck A, Issay, Y, Koensgen D, Mustea A, Sehouli J, Kristiansen G, Altevogt P. Gynecol Oncl. 2007 Dec;107(3):563–71. Epub 2007 Sept 27.
  2. MicroRNA signatures of tumor-derived exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C. Gynecol Oncol. 2008 July;110(1):13–21
  3. Claudin-containing exosomes in the peripheral circulation of women with ovarian cancer. Li J, Sherman-Baust CA, Tsai-Turton M, Bristow RE, Roden RB, Morin PJ.BMC Cancer. 2009 Jul 20;9:244.

Breast Cancer

  1. Purification, characterization and biological significance of tumor-derived exosomes. Koga K, Matsumoto K, Akiyoshi T, Kubo M, Yamanaka N, Tasaki A, Nakashima H, Nakamura M, Kuroki S, Tanaka M, Katano M. Anticancer Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6A):3703-3707.
  2. Proteomics of MUC1-containing lipid rafts from plasma membranes and exosomes of human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. Staubach S, Razawi H, Hanisch FG. Proteomics 2009 May;9(10):2820-35

Lung Cancer

  1. Microvesicles derived from activated platelets induce metastasis and angiogenesis in lung cancer. Janowska-Wieczorek A, Wysoczynski M, Kijowski J, Marquez-Curtis L, Machalinski B, Ratajczak J, Ratajczak MZ. Int. J. Cancer. 2005 Feb 20;113(5): 752–760.
  2. Exosomal microRNA: a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. Rabinowits G, Gercel-Taylor C, Day JM, Taylor DD, Kloecker GH. Clin Lung Cancer. 2009 Jan:10(1):42-6.
  3. Lung cancer secreted microvesicles: underappreciated modulators of microenvironment in expanding tumors. Wysoczynsk M and Ratajczak MZ. Int. J. Cancer. 2009 Oct. 1;125(7):1595-603

Prostate Cancer

  1. Senescence-Associated Exosome Release from Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Lehman BD, Paine MS, Brooks AM, McCubrey JA, Renegar RH, Wang R, Terrian DM. Cancer Res 2008;68(19):7864–71
  2. Exosomal secretion of cytoplasmic prostate cancer xenograft-derived proteins. Jansen FH, Krijgveld J, van Rijswijk A, van den Bemd GJ, van den Berg MS, van Weerden WM, Willemsen R, Dekker LJ, Luider TM, Jenster G. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009 Jun;8(6):1192-205. Epub 2009 Feb. 9
  3. Can urinary exosomes act as treatment response markers in Prostate Cancer? Mitchell PJ, Welton J, Staffurth J, Court J, Mason MD, Tabi Z, Clayton A. J Transl Med. 2009 Jan 12;7:4.

Brain Cancer / Glioblastoma

  1. Intercellular transfer of the oncogenic receptor EGFRvIII by microvesicles derived from tumour cells. Al-Nedawi, Meehan B, Micallef J, Lhotak V, May L, Guha A, Rak J. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 May;10(5):619-24.
  2. Proteomic and immunologic analyses of brain tumor exosomes. Graner MW, Alzate O, Dechkovskaia AM, Keene JD, Sampson JH, Mitchell DA, Bigner DD. FASEB J. 2009 May;23(5):1541-57. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

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