Path-22. Clinical Features and Molecular Characterization of Leptomeningeal Disease in Patients with High Grade Glioma


Madison Shoaf, Joanne Xiu, Frances Chow, Mike Glantz, Ashley Sumrall, Sonikpreet Aulakh, Phil Walker, David Spetzler, Theodore Nicolaides, David Ashley, Giselle Lopez, Eric Lipp, Katy Peters



Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a challenging complication of high grade glioma (HGG) and critical questions remain unanswered regarding clinicopathologic risk factors, molecular associations, and optimal treatment.


Patients with molecularly-profiled HGG (Caris Life Sciences; Phoenix, AZ) with LMD at two institutions were included. Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Kaplan-Meier estimates of patient survival were performed on censored data using Cox’s proportional hazard model.


43 patients (male: 33, female: 10; median age: 56 years) were identified, comprising 41 grade 4 (glioblastoma: 38; gliosarcoma: 2; H3K27M diffuse midline glioma: 1) and 2 grade 3 tumors (astrocytoma: 1; pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: 1). LMD diagnosed at HGG diagnosis (n=18) versus recurrence (n=22) was associated with longer post-LMD survival [pLMD-OS: 15.3m vs. 4.8m, HR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.29, p=0.0004] but similar overall survival [mOS: 15.3m vs. 12.3m; HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.36-1.85; p=0.63]. Pathology-diagnosed LMD (n=15) versus MRI-diagnosed LMD (n=26) was associated with longer post-LMD survival [pLMD-OS: 15.4m vs. 5.2m, HR: 14.9, 95% CI: 0.01-0.30, p=0.0004] but similar overall survival [mOS: 17.1m vs. 12.3m; HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.3-1.58; p=0.38]. Post-LMD survival was significantly prolonged for supratentorial (n=28) versus infratentorial/spinal (n=4) locations regardless of the diagnostic modality [pLMD-OS: 2.6m vs. 11.3m, HR: 14.4, 95% CI: 2.73-75.7, p=0.0017], and did not significantly differ between symptomatic (n=20) and asymptomatic (n=23) patients [pLMD-OS: 4.8m vs. 11.2m, HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.82-3.77, p=0.15). pTERT mutation (81%), EGFR amplification (43%), and MGMT methylation (33%) were prevalent but IDH1 mutation was rare (2.8%). Comparison with a separate glioblastoma cohort (n=1400) suggested more frequent amplification of CHIC2, MDM4, and KDR, higher mutation rates of RUNX1, APC, and RAD51C, colder tumor microenvironment (TME), and lower expression of immune checkpoint-related genes.


Clinicopathological characteristics affect post-LMD survival, and cohort comparison suggests molecular and TME differences in LMD-HGG tumors.

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